Rosenthal earned his medical degree from Mercer University School of Medicine in Macon, Georgia. He completed a general surgery residency and a fellowship in critical care medicine at UF. His post-graduate surgical training also includes nutrition fellowships at Louisville University and Oregon Health and Science University. Rosenthal is also board-certified in surgical critical care.
He is a member of several professional and medical organizations, including the Florida Chapter of American Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition, the American Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition, the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the Florida Chapter of American College of Surgeons, the Florida Committee on Trauma and the American College of Surgeons.
Rosenthal also served as an ad hoc reviewer for the journal PLOS One. He has authored numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals and chapters in medical textbooks.